Battery degradation in a 2012 Nissan LEAF
Battery degradation exists in electric cars, just as it does in mobile phones and laptops, but many people that are not familiar with electric cars have no idea what that is, or what it means. This article will help to fill in that knowledge gap.
First, let’s provide you with some background information. The above image was taken on May 28, 2017. This is a 2012 model Nissan LEAF SV that was sold originally, according to CARFAX, on January 11, 2013 and was built on July 21, 2012. It was sold in Southern California, and seems to have been driven in SoCal during its three year lease. I bought the car from a San Diego Nissan dealership in February of 2016 after it had come off lease. When I bought it, the car had 33,986 miles on it. So with this basic information in hand, you can see that we put under 10,000 miles on it in a fifteen month period. One other bit of important information – when we bought it, after only three years and roughly 34,000 miles it had already lost three bars of battery capacity. So that’s where we started with this car. It lost the fourth bar about fifteen months after we bought it.
If you look at the right side of the image, you will see two small red segments at the bottom right with six white segments above them. These are the battery capacity bars that LEAF drivers talk about. When this car was new, there were ten of those white segments above the red ones for a total of twelve bars. I will talk more about this battery degradation shortly. Just to the left of that, you can count 12 blue and white bars around the big 57 miles indicator. So when the car was new, the little white segments on the right would have matched all of the blue and white bars just to the left of them. These four missing white segments are what LEAF owners talk about when they talk about battery degradation. The longer blue and white bars are like a gas tank indicator on a gas-powered car. When full there are twelve bars, and as you use up the electricity stored in the battery, the blue and white bars start dropping off just like a fuel-tank indicator would. You will also see the big range remaining indicator count down toward empty.
As can be seen from the above image, the vehicle range as reported by the range remaining indicator is 57 miles at this point. The range remaining increases when placed in the Eco mode. Here is what it looks like in Eco.
So in this case, you can see that the Eco mode provides roughly an additional nine percent in range. Often Eco mode will provide about an additional ten percent in range when driving around town. Eco mode doesn’t really add any range when driving on the freeway. This car is still suitable for all of our typical around-town usage, but may not be satisfactory for others. I have written another article (here) that will discuss some of the factors that can impact battery degradation.
When new, the EPA combined range was 84 miles adjusting for their change in measurement parameters that they changed in 2013. As the battery degrades (loses bars) the range diminishes. These images show a full charge (all twelve blue and white bars illuminated) with a range of 57 in Drive mode. This is the mode that EPA measures the driving range. When your cell phone’s battery starts to age, your talk time decreases between charges. When it’s your car, your driving range decreases. That’s what battery degradation is.
Nissan has a battery capacity warranty that will provide a new battery for this LEAF under certain conditions. The capacity warranty says that when four bars are lost within 60 months or 60,000 miles of the original sale, they will restore the car to at least nine bars on these 24 kWh battery cars. On the newer 30 kWh battery cars, the capacity warranty is 96 months or 100,000 miles due to improved chemistry. In practice, Nissan has been replacing the entire battery pack restoring the range to new, which in this case the EPA says would be about 84 miles. Also, the chemistry of the replacement pack is improved over the original so it should degrade at a slower rate than the original and possibly provide slightly improved range over the original. Should you be outside the capacity warranty, the price to replace a battery is currently a little over $6,000. While that is a lot of money, one only need ask themselves this question: Do I want to spend $25,000 to $35,000 in a new car, or would it be better to spend $6,000 on my LEAF and drive it another five years?
Writing this article has created a couple of other areas of interest for me, so I’ll be writing about an easy way to optimize your range as your vehicle ages soon. I’ll also be writing about the possibility of getting a used LEAF or other electric car as your second family vehicle.